Difference between revisions of "Treating survivors of torture"

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(New page: Every year, thousands of Indian citizens and immigrants survive torture. Many survivors of torture in neighboring countries also seek refuge in India. This pages aims at putting together r...)
 
(Organizations working with survivors of torture)
 
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Every year, thousands of Indian citizens and immigrants survive torture. Many survivors of torture in neighboring countries also seek refuge in India. This pages aims at putting together resources for health care professionals in India who provide treatment to survivors of torture.
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Every year, thousands of Indian citizens and immigrants survive torture. Many survivors of torture in neighboring countries also seek refuge in India. This page aims at putting together resources for health care professionals in India who provide treatment to survivors of torture.
  
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In 1984 the UN Convention Against Torture stated that “the term “torture” means any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purpose as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has committed, or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating or coercing him or a third person, or for any reason based on discrimination of any kind, when such pain or suffering is inflicted by, or at the instigation of, or with the consent or acquiescence of, a public official or other person acting in an official capacity. It does not include pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in, or incidental to lawful sanctions”. <ref>[http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/cat.htm UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment]</ref>
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In India the total number of incidents of torture is difficult to estimate because many incidents go unreported. Torture may be meted out by police and paramilitary forces as well as by other agencies such as caste panchayats and rebel groups such as the Naxalites and armed organizations in the North East. The use of various forms of torture by the police in India is widely prevalent. A report by the Asian Center for Human Rights stated that "torture remains endemic, institutionalised and central to the administration of justice and counter-terrorism measures [in India]". The reports records that from 2001 to  February 2010, the [[National Human Rights Commission]] (NHRC) recorded 1,504 deaths in police custody and 12,727 deaths in judicial custody in India. A large majority of these deaths are claimed to be the direct consequence of torture in custody.<ref>[http://www.achrweb.org/reports/india/torture2011.pdf Asian Centre for Human Rights (2011). Torture in India 2011. New Delhi: Asian Centre For Human Rights]</ref>
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The [[Medical Council of India]]'s Code of Ethics Regulations, 2002 explicitly states, "The physician shall not aid or abet torture nor shall he be a party to either infliction of mental or physical trauma or concealment of torture inflicted by some other person or agency in clear violation of human rights."<ref>[http://www.mciindia.org/RulesandRegulations/CodeofMedicalEthicsRegulations2002.aspx Medical Council of India. (2002). Indian Medical Council (Professional Conduct, Etiquette and Ethics) Regulations, 2002]</ref>. However attitudes toward torture among the Indian medical community are often ambivalent. A study of 97 fourth year medical students in Delhi found that only 21 students did not support the practice of police beatings in order to obtain information, with 28 supporting the practice and 46 remaining undecided.<ref>[http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CCIQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.irct.org%2FAdmin%2FPublic%2FDWSDownload.aspx%3FFile%3DFiles%252FFiler%252FTortureJournal%252F15_1_2005%252FTorture15-1_2005-p46.pdf&ei=NfR6UJGCMYHV0gHJ3ICgBw&usg=AFQjCNE4bmk7KUYgq9da5qM1uJzYtUzfbA    Verma, SK & Biswas, G. (2005). Knowledge and attitude on torture by medical students in Delhi. Torture. 15 (1), p46-50.]</ref>.
  
  
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* Internally displaced people
 
* Internally displaced people
 
 
* Adivasi and Dalit communities
 
* Adivasi and Dalit communities
 
 
* Immigrants
 
* Immigrants
  
  
==Recognizing survivors of torture==
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==Treating survivors of torture==
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* [http://www.cvt.org/sites/cvt.org/files/u11/Torture%20Survivors%20What%20to%20ask%2C%20how%20to%20document_Journal%20of%20Family%20Practice_April2012.pdf Miles, SH & Garcia-Peltoniemi, RE. (2012). Torture survivors: What to ask, how to document. Journal of Family Practice. 61 (4), e1-e5.]
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* [http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/training8Rev1en.pdf Istanbul Protocol: Manual on the Effective Investigation and Documentation of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment]
  
Physical injuries<ref>[http://www.cvt.org/sites/cvt.org/files/u11/Torture%20Survivors%20What%20to%20ask%2C%20how%20to%20document_Journal%20of%20Family%20Practice_April2012.pdf]</ref>
 
* Concussive trauma
 
* Suspension, hyperflexion
 
* Ligatures, binding, and compression
 
* Burns, electrical shock, and mutilation by cutting
 
* Exposure to injurious environments
 
  
 
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==Summaries of research on treating survivors of torture==
==Resources for health workers treating survivors of torture==
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* [http://rct.org/resources/rct-research-publications/articles,-book-chapters,-and-monographs/2005/politically-motivated-torture-and-its-survivors-a-desk-study-review-of-the-literature.aspx Politically-motivated torture and its survivors: A desk study review of the literature]
 
* [http://rct.org/resources/rct-research-publications/articles,-book-chapters,-and-monographs/2005/politically-motivated-torture-and-its-survivors-a-desk-study-review-of-the-literature.aspx Politically-motivated torture and its survivors: A desk study review of the literature]
 
* [http://www.cvt.org/sites/cvt.org/files/attachments/u8/downloads/CVT%20Torture%20Rehabilitation%20and%20Research%20Biobliography.pdf Torture Rehabilitation and Research Bibliography]
 
* [http://www.cvt.org/sites/cvt.org/files/attachments/u8/downloads/CVT%20Torture%20Rehabilitation%20and%20Research%20Biobliography.pdf Torture Rehabilitation and Research Bibliography]
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===Outside India===
 
===Outside India===
 
*[http://www.irct.org International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims]
 
*[http://www.irct.org International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims]
*[http://www.cvt.org/ Center for Victims of Torture]
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*[http://www.cvt.org/ Center for Victims of Torture], Minnesota, USA
 
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*[http://www.survivorsoftorture.org/ Bellevue/NYU Program for Survivors of Torture]. New York, USA
 
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==Legal aspects==
 
==Legal aspects==
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===Laws which protect citizens from torture===
 
===Laws which protect citizens from torture===
* Prevention of Torture Bill <ref>[http://blogs.reuters.com/india/2010/04/12/will-anti-torture-law-have-the-desired-effect Will anti-torture law have the desired effect? - Reuters]</ref>
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* Prevention of Torture Bill 2010 - Passed by Lok Sabha on May 6 2010. - [http://www.prsindia.org/billtrack/the-prevention-of-torture-bill-2010-1129/ Analysis by PRS Legislative Research]
  
 
===International statutes===
 
===International statutes===
* [http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/cat.htm UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment] - India became a signatory on 14 October 1997.
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* [http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/cat.htm UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment] - India became a signatory on 14 October 1997 but has not yet ratified the convention.
  
  

Latest revision as of 20:09, 26 April 2013

Every year, thousands of Indian citizens and immigrants survive torture. Many survivors of torture in neighboring countries also seek refuge in India. This page aims at putting together resources for health care professionals in India who provide treatment to survivors of torture.

In 1984 the UN Convention Against Torture stated that “the term “torture” means any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purpose as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has committed, or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating or coercing him or a third person, or for any reason based on discrimination of any kind, when such pain or suffering is inflicted by, or at the instigation of, or with the consent or acquiescence of, a public official or other person acting in an official capacity. It does not include pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in, or incidental to lawful sanctions”. [1]

In India the total number of incidents of torture is difficult to estimate because many incidents go unreported. Torture may be meted out by police and paramilitary forces as well as by other agencies such as caste panchayats and rebel groups such as the Naxalites and armed organizations in the North East. The use of various forms of torture by the police in India is widely prevalent. A report by the Asian Center for Human Rights stated that "torture remains endemic, institutionalised and central to the administration of justice and counter-terrorism measures [in India]". The reports records that from 2001 to February 2010, the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) recorded 1,504 deaths in police custody and 12,727 deaths in judicial custody in India. A large majority of these deaths are claimed to be the direct consequence of torture in custody.[2]

The Medical Council of India's Code of Ethics Regulations, 2002 explicitly states, "The physician shall not aid or abet torture nor shall he be a party to either infliction of mental or physical trauma or concealment of torture inflicted by some other person or agency in clear violation of human rights."[3]. However attitudes toward torture among the Indian medical community are often ambivalent. A study of 97 fourth year medical students in Delhi found that only 21 students did not support the practice of police beatings in order to obtain information, with 28 supporting the practice and 46 remaining undecided.[4].


Contents

[edit] Populations who are vulnerable to torture

  • Internally displaced people
  • Adivasi and Dalit communities
  • Immigrants


[edit] Treating survivors of torture


[edit] Summaries of research on treating survivors of torture


[edit] Organizations working with survivors of torture

[edit] In India

[edit] Outside India

[edit] Legal aspects

[edit] Laws which may be used to sanction torture

  • Prevention of Terrorism Act(POTA)
  • Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act
  • Terrorism and Destructive Activities Act (Prevention)
  • Essential Services Maintenance Act

[edit] Laws which protect citizens from torture

[edit] International statutes


[edit] References

  1. UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
  2. Asian Centre for Human Rights (2011). Torture in India 2011. New Delhi: Asian Centre For Human Rights
  3. Medical Council of India. (2002). Indian Medical Council (Professional Conduct, Etiquette and Ethics) Regulations, 2002
  4. Verma, SK & Biswas, G. (2005). Knowledge and attitude on torture by medical students in Delhi. Torture. 15 (1), p46-50.


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